Month: August 2021

Bonding With Your Dog Involves A Lot Of Looking At Each Other.

That the dog is man’s best friend is not new to anyone. Anyone who has a puppy at home knows what it’s like to always have unconditional love and support. Animals appear at the top of people’s list of greatest companions for never abandoning their owners.

And anyone who loves dogs and has one knows how to relate to these animals. And realize that they not only understand what the owner means, but also the way and tone they say things.

The relationship between a human and a dog is very much based on the look. Be it a pleading look wanting a piece of food, or a loving look before licking the owner. Many dogs have mastered this art of eye contact with humans.

To look

Many people may think that this look was a change that came from the fact that dogs have lived with humans for thousands of years. But in reality there are several reasons why dogs look to humans. And a new study has found that some dogs are better at eye contact than others.

“The mutual gaze also plays a role in the dog-human bond. Its duration is associated with increased levels of oxytocin in dogs and their human partners,” explained the researchers.

For this study, researchers measured several different factors to investigate what causes dogs to make eye contact with humans. They measured the dogs’ age and play around strangers. In addition to noting the breed and the traditional role that these animals may have played.

head size

The researchers also took measurements of the dogs’ heads. A measure known as the cephalic index. That’s because the ratio between the length of the muzzle and the width of the head greatly changes eye contact and the way dogs see the world.

Small, thick-headed dogs may see less in their peripheral vision than dogs with long, thin heads. And according to previous research, dogs with shorter heads are more successful at following human gestures than dogs with longer heads.

“They are likely to see the human face more clearly because of its special retina. But it’s also possible that their owners look at them more often, as their facial features resemble a small child, a powerful clue for humans,” said the study’s author, ethologist Zsófia Bognár, from Eötvös Loránd University, in Hungary.

“Because of this, dogs with a shorter nose may be more experienced in making eye contact. Boxer, bulldog, pug and snub-nosed dogs generally have a more pronounced central area in the retina so they can better respond to stimuli in the central field, which can make it easier for them to form eye contact with humans.” , continued.


The study was carried out with 125 adult dogs. They ran a series of experiments, including one where the dogs were given some sausage each time they made eye contact with the researcher.

As expected, the researchers found that the dogs were quicker to make eye contact as the experiment progressed. But they also found that various factors related to the size of the animals’ head and breed had an effect on the speed and amount of eye contact the dog made.

“The results showed that dogs with a higher cephalic index, or sjea, with a shorter head, made eye contact faster. Breed function also affected the dogs’ performance. Cooperative and crossbred breeds established eye contact faster than non-cooperative breed dogs. Younger dogs form eye contact faster than older dogs. More playful dogs established eye contact faster,” the researchers concluded.

The Earth’s Crust Is Much Older Than Imagined

Our planet has a geological age of approximately five billion years. Science dedicated to the study of the Earth divides this age into eras, epochs, periods, ages and phases. In the beginning of all, the Earth had on its surface a molten and hot material, having its most part formed by iron, nickel and other metals. They have been focusing on their core over time.

Approximately 3.9 billion years ago, cooling allowed the rocks to solidify. This gave rise to a solid outer layer on the earth’s surface. This is the crust. And just like good French bread, our planet would be nothing without its crust. And luckily this crust has aged very well.


Our hard, rocky continental crust has been a feature of the Earth for billions of years. However, specifying exactly how many billions of years is difficult. The researchers then studied the decomposition of ancient chemicals that were trapped in rocks to calculate the age of continents.

These substances are usually carbonate minerals recovered from the ocean. However, they are hard to find and are rarely in pure enough condition to be analyzed.

As a result, a team of scientists developed a new way to date the ancient pieces of crust. According to the latest research, researchers have misjudged the age of continents at half a billion years.


According to research that was presented at the 2021 General Assembly virtual conference of the European Union of Geosciences (EGU) on April 26, the researchers showed that when they analyzed a mineral called barite, which is a combination of ocean salts barium released by volcanic vents in the oceans, they found evidence that our planet’s continental crust existed at least 3.7 billion years ago. This is much older than previous estimates predicted.

“This is a huge leap in time. This has implications for how we think about how life evolved,” said Desiree Roerdink, lead author of the study and geochemistry at the University of Bergen in Norway.

According to the researchers, marine rocks work to study the continental crust because continents and oceans have a long history of nutrient trading. And the barites, in particular, record this story in an excellent way.

“The composition of a piece of barite, which has been on Earth for three and a half billion years, is exactly the same as when it actually precipitated. It’s a great recorder to observe processes on early Earth,” explained Roerdink.


The key process is wear. After all, when continents wear out naturally they spill nutrients into the seas. And it’s these nutrients that help promote life in the seas.

One of the elements that leaks from the continental crust into the ocean is strontium. And by measuring the proportion of two strontium isotopes in six different deposits of barite minerals, the researchers were able to calculate the ages of the minerals.

They ranged between 3.2 and 3.5 billion years ago. And it was from these minerals that they were able to estimate how long the ancient continents began to leak strontium into the oceans. This process probably started approximately 3.7 billion years ago.

This conclusion researchers drew means that there were well-established continents 3.7 billion years ago. Which is half a billion years earlier than was previously estimated.